What the Acropolis was to Athens, and the Capitol to Rome, the kremlin is to Moscow. It is surrounded by a strong and lofty wall, embattled with many towers and turrets, and several gates. The most important of these is, beyond doubt, the Spass Vorota (the gate of the Redeemer). It is the porta sacra and porta triumphalis of Moscow. Through it entered the triumphant warriors of Vassili-Ivanovich, after the conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan, and those of Michael and Alexis, after the victories obtained in the Ukraine. Over this gate is a picture of the Savior, under a glass, and before it hangs a large, ill-formed lamp, in a massive metal frame; this is suspended by a heavy chain, and under it, to wind it up, stands a complicated old machine, that jarred and rattled here in the time of the czar Michael. A man, whose sole business it is to wind it up, has a table beside him with wax-tapers, which he sells to be lighted before the picture. This shrine is an object of the greatest rev erence with the Russians, although few know what it represents, it hangs so high, and the colors are so faded.
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Sears, Robert. An Illustrated Description of the Russian Empire. New York: Robert Sears, 1855