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Illustrated Description Of Russia

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Circassians


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Circassians

Circassians
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The Circassians are divided into five classes. 1. Pschi, or pschech (princes). 2. Uork (ancient nobles). 3. The freedmen of these princes and ancient nobles, who, by their manumission, become themselves noble, and are called uork of uork. 4. The freedmen of these new nobles, called begualia. 5. The vassals, or tcho'kotl. Between the ancient and recent nobility there is no real distinction, except that, in military service, the latter are still under the command of their former masters; nor is there any great practical difference between the begualia and the tcho'kotl or vassals. The latter are, of course, the laborers, and are subdivided into such as are engaged in agriculture and such as serve the superior classes in the capacity of menial servants.

see more - The Caucasian Provinces






Sears, Robert. An Illustrated Description of the Russian Empire. New York: Robert Sears, 1855