From both position and physical conformation, Lapland is one of the most forbidding regions of the globe, consisting either of rugged mountains—some of them covered with perpetual, and many of them only for a short period free from snow—or of vast monotonous tracts of moorland wastes. This extensive territory appears to have been at one time wholly occupied by the people to whom it owes its name; but its southern and better portions have been gradually encroached upon by Swedes, Norwegians, and Finlanders, till the Laplanders proper have, in a great measure, been cooped up within the arctic circle.
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Sears, Robert. An Illustrated Description of the Russian Empire. New York: Robert Sears, 1855